Thursday, September 25, 2014

Japanese Grammar Tips ~The Particles~ (3)

Today I'm going to tell you tip(3).

(1) Xは = The theme of the sentence is X
 - We usually use to describe things. So <AB> is often translated as <A is B>.
 - is used to emphasize the subject. <AB> can be translated as <B is A>.
 - When we answer the questions like "who is...?" or "what is...?", it's natural to use .
 -  has an exclusive meaning. If we say A, it implies that not B, C, but A.
(2) が describes objectively what has happened
 - When we describe "what happens" or "what has happened", we use .
 - In this case, you are just a spectator who describes the situation objectively.
 - If you use  to describe happenings, then it focuses on "what someone/something did".
 - When we talk about the actions of the first and the second person, tip(1) applies.
(3) When the subject changes in one sentence, we should use が
(4) Can't we repeat は in one sentence? 
(5) Some Japanese verbs used が to mark the direct object
(6) は can be attached to another particles
* (1) ~ (3) are the posts from lang-8

(3) When the subject changes in one sentence, we should use が.

In Japanese language, the subject of the sentence is quite often omitted. It rarely happens in English unless it is a direct command, though.

Now let's see an example sentence.
I found that man was a police officer.
You know, this sentence is consist of 2 sentences.

気付きました (I found)
あの男の人警察です (That man is a police officer)

As you see, the subject is omitted. And did you notice that the particle has changed? The particle implies that the subject changes in the sentence. It doesn't always mean that this has an exclusive meaning.

私は気付きました+彼警察です → 彼警察だと気付きました。
* It doesn't have an exclusive meaning.
私は気付きました+彼警察です → 彼警察だと気付きました。
* It has an exclusive meaning.

Let's have a look at another example:
> 花子さん結婚したことを知っています。
Hanako knows (someone) got married.
In this sentence, the speaker didn't mention who got married. It's omitted.

We use to describe things or featurestip(1). We usually use to describe happenings or actions on the other hand ― tip(2). 知っている is considered as a kind of status of the person, even though "to know" is a verb in English. So tip(1) is applied to it.

What does it sound like if I use in this sentence?
> 花子さん結婚したことを知っています。

According to tip(1), this sentence can be write as:
> 結婚したことを知っているのは花子さんです。
Hanako is the one who knows (someone) got married.
This has an exclusive meaning. The speaker possibly answered the questions like "who knows that (someone) got married?", or he wants to imply that not the any other person but Hanako does.

But wait, as I said,  is also used to show that the subject changes.!
So it can also translated as "I (or someone else) know Hanako got married". In this case, the subject of 知っています is omitted. As I wrote, if it's obvious between speaker and the listener, the subject is often dropped off.

Picture this. You went shopping at the mall, and coincidentally met Hanako's ex, Mr.Tanaka. You knew Hanako never contacted him after they broke up. You found Mr.Tanaka was going to buy a women's purse, so you said:

You: あれ、田中さん、それは・・・?
Hey, Mr.Tanaka, is it...?
Mr.Tanaka: ああ、花子への結婚祝いに。
Yeah, it's a wedding gift for Hanako.
You: なんで花子さん結婚したことを知っているんですか?
Why do you know that Hanako got married?
Mr.Tanaka: 毎日彼女のフェイスブックをチェックしているからね。
Because I check her Facebook page everyday.

Here, the subject of 知っている is "you" but it's omitted. You cannot use here because can't imply the subject of 知っている is different.

Let's recap!
- When the subject changes in one sentence, we should use .
- On the contrary, can't imply the omitted subject.

The previous journal's <QUIZ> answer 
[2] 父公園のベンチで寝ています。
It's natural to use in this case, because you just describe what you saw. If you use , you might already knew that your father is sleeping in the park, and tell others "what your father is doing" or "where your father sleeps". In other words,  shows "new" information, and は shows known information between the speaker and the listener.

<Today's QUIZ>
Which sentence is correct to describe the situation below:
You got angry because your husband  cheated on you!

[1] 夫浮気したことに怒っている。
[2] 夫浮気したことに怒っている。

*夫(おっと) /otto/ a husband
*浮気(うわき)する /uwaki suru/ to cheat on one's partner
*怒(おこ)る /okoru/ to get angry

Yeah, it will be found out soon..... lol
That's all for today! Thank you for reading! =)

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